Dietary Tips and Rationale

5367b64eb8a60fc0bf58285b26c2ce23Explanation of Dietary Guidelines

Eat 3-6 meals daily (Rationale)

See Possible Strategies

  1. Increasing meal frequency does not appear to favorably change body composition in sedentary populations.
  2. If protein levels are adequate, increasing meal frequency during periods of hypoenergetic dieting may preserve lean body mass in athletic populations.
  3. Increased meal frequency appears to have a positive effect on various blood markers of health, particularly LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and insulin.
  4. Increased meal frequency does not appear to significantly enhance diet induced thermogenesis, total energy expenditure or resting metabolic rate.
  5. Increasing meal frequency appears to help decrease hunger and improve appetite control.

La Bounty PM, Campbell BI, Wilson J, Galvan E, Berardi J, Kleiner SM, Kreider RB, Stout JR, Ziegenfuss T, Spano M, Smith A, Antonio J (2011). International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: meal frequency. J Int Soc Sports Nutr.16, 8:4.

Eat higher carbohydrate meal (with protein) very soon after exercise


See Guidelines

  • Improves post workout recovery (Niles 2001)
    • Faster rate of muscle glycogen re-synthesis
      • 50% more glycogen can be stored (Friedman 1991)
    • Improved performance in subsequent exercise
    • Less muscle damage
  • Increased protein synthesis
    • Nearly 3 fold increase (Levenhagen 2001)
    • Decreases post exercise cortisol levels
  • Increase lean muscle mass (Esmarck 2001, Holm 2004)
  • Decreases risk of injury (Flakoll 2004)

Counter Argument

  • Ingestion of sugar (glucose) has shown to acutely depress testosterone by 25% (Iranmanesh 2012, Caronia 2013).

Caronia LM, Dwyer AA, Hayden D, Amati F, Pitteloud N, Hayes FJ (2013). Abrupt decrease in serum testosterone levels after an oral glucose load in men: implications for screening for hypogonadism. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 78(2), 291-6

Iranmanesh A, Lawson D, Veldhuis JD (2012). Glucose ingestion acutely lowers pulsatile LH and basal testosterone secretion in men. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 302(6):E724-30.

Eat fruits or vegetables

  • Source of vitamins, minerals, fiber, and phytonutrients
    • See Vegetable and Fruit Color Codes
    • See benefits of cruciferous vegetables
  • May spare calcium and glutamine
    • See balancing dietary pH

Eat high fiber foods

Possible Strategies

  • Less tendency to eat calorie dense foods
    • By filling up on vegetables, fruits, beans, and whole grains
  • Fiber can decrease the absorption of dietary fat
    • Fiber acts a barrier in the intestines
  • May help stabilize blood sugar levels
    • See fiber’s effect on insulin studies
  • Helps prevent constipation by adding mass to stool
  • Also see fiber’s other health benefits

Moderate dietary fat


Possible Strategies

  • Too much saturated fat or hydrogenated fat may increase risk of heart disease and certain cancers
  • Lower fat foods are less calorie dense
    • 4 Calories per gram of carbohydrates and protein
    • 7 Calories per gram of alcohol
    • 9 Calories per gram of fat
  • Dietary fat is more likely to convert to body fat than carbohydrates or protein
    • It takes 20% more energy for the body to convert carbohydrates or protein to body fat than it does to convert dietary fat to body fat
  • Less tendency to overeat
    • Particularly if previous meal or snack is small or skipped
    • Fat is more palatable
    • Also see: Dietary Fat and Appetite Control

Counter Arguments

  • Read Macronutrient Ratio Studies.
  • Dietary fat offers satiety
  • In men, decrease in dietary fat content and an increase in the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids reduces the serum concentrations of androstenedione, testosterone and free testosterone (Hämäläinen 1984).
  • Read Lipid Hypothesis counter argument.

Hämäläinen E, Adlercreutz H, Puska P, Pietinen P (1984). Diet and serum sex hormones in healthy men. J Steroid Biochem. 20(1):459-64.

Limit sugar consumption

Possible Strategies

  • Chronic sugar consumption has been linked to obesity and metabolic syndrome
  • See High Fructose Corn Syrup Q&A
  • See Sugar: The Bitter Truth video seminar

Eat a variety of foods

  • Better ensures ingestion of all essential nutrients
  • Decreases risk of developing food intolerances
    • See Dr Serrano Interview
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